Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the axial skeleton, manifested by back pain and progressive stiffness of the spine. Characteristically, it affects young adults with a peak age of onset between 20 and 30 years, however an untreated disease may be also diagnosed in the mid 40 to 50 years of age.
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a common cause of chronic musculoskeletal pain. It is one of a group of soft tissue pain disorders that affect muscles and soft tissues such as tendons and ligaments. None of these conditions is associated with tissue inflammation and the etiology of the pain is not known.Fibromyalgia, like other functional somatic syndromes, has been a controversial illness. Patients look well, there are no obvious abnormalities on physical examination, and laboratory and radiologic studies are normal.
Gout is a very painful condition that develops in some people who have chronically high blood levels of uric acid, which is produced in the liver, and insufficiently eliminated through the kidney. Crystals of uric acid may precipitate in the joints and produce the gouty arthritis. Uric acid crystals can also be deposited in the kidney or urinary tract, and cause kidney stones and occasionally impairing kidney function. More than 15 % of patients with gout develop also kidney stones.
To more accurately assess the incidence of childhood arthritis and to better understand its etiology, it is necessary to both more rigorously and more inclusively define the diseases which cause arthritis in children. As a result, the older term juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) is being replaced by the term juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). JIA will incorporate all of what has been called JRA in the past, but also will incorporate all other forms of "idiopathic" arthritis in childhood.
Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness caused by three pathogenic species of the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, the sole cause of the disease in the United States. Lyme disease has a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, and it also varies in severity due, in part, to differences in the infecting species. Lyme disease was first described in 1977 as "Lyme arthritis" in studies of a cluster in Connecticut of children who were thought to have juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.
Etiology and pathogenesis: The osteoarthritis (OA) is the leading cause of physical disability, increased health care utilization and costs, as well as a substantially impaired quality of life, in our modern, industrialized society. More than 56 millions Americans suffer from this condition today, and this is a number much larger than all the patients with diabetes, cancer, HIV/AIDS and hypertension taken together. Moreover, the impact of this arthritic condition is expected to grow with both the population increase and its aging during the coming decades.
Osteoporosis is a progressive disease of the bones in which bone mass and architecture is lost and the bones become brittle and fracture easily. An earlier and less severe phase of osteoporosis is known as osteopenia. More than 1.3 million fractures occur each year in the United States because of osteoporosis. With early diagnosis and treatment of bone loss, the risk of fractures can be significantly reduced.
Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is an inflammatory rheumatic condition characterized clinically by aching and morning stiffness in the shoulders, hip girdle, and neck. It can be associated with giant cell (temporal) arteritis (GCA), and the two disorders may represent different manifestations of a shared disease process.
Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease mediated by the immune system that appears as patches of thick, inflamed red, scaly silvery plaques. More than 40% of people with psoriasis also develop psoriatic arthritis. PSA is a type of arthritis that affects men and women equally and causes pain, swelling, and stiffness of the joints.
The Raynaud’s phenomenon (RP) is defined by sharply demarcated color change of the skin of the digits and toes in response to cold or emotional stress. Episodic vasospasm and occlusion of the digital arteries is thought to underlie the disorder.